Arisaka Type 99 Rifle: A Japanese WWII Relic

Midway Village Museum has a permanent collection of nearly 150,000 artifacts. Within the walls of the museum are untold stories of amazing relics. In honor of our upcoming WWII Days event, we’d like to share a piece of history with our readers. In our weaponry collection, we have a Japanese Arisaka Type 99 bolt action infantry rifle from WWII, brought back by Everett Charles Sarver. Before continuing with this story, let’s get some more background on Mr. Sarver and why this particular weapon is one of the best bolt action rifles to have been produced.

Everett Charles “Son” Sarver was born on April 24, 1916 to Everett Alexander and Lauretta Sarver.  He and his father, Everett Alexander, began a livestock hauling business that evolved from Everett Alexander’s garbage hauling job from Camp Grant. E.A. Sarver & Son began circa 1934, and by 1941, E.C. had taken over the business; it became E.C. Sarver Livestock Trucking. E.C. Sarver owned and operated this trucking company before he entered the Navy.

He was drafted into the Navy in 1944 during WWII and served until 1946 in the Pacific on the U.S.S. Minotaur.  Everett was the U.S.S. Minotaur’s mailman and the Captain’s Talker (he relayed orders via an intercom system to stations beyond the bridge).  As mailman, he would go in a small boat from ship to shore to pick up mail and “other illicit things.”  It is believed that this is how he acquired an Arisaka Type 99 bolt action rifle and bayonet.

The Type 99 rifle was created as a result of Imperial Japan’s fast track to modernization, called the Meiji Restoration (1868-1912). During that time, Japan was quickly assimilating Western technologies and improving upon them in order to become a colonial power. Before WWII, Japan had already started taking over territories in China and had defeated Russia to claim land in Manchuria and Korea.  As Japan’s power grew, their military spread into other parts of Asia, leading to the Second Japanese-Russo War and later, WWII.

The Type 99 rifle and its predecessors, the Type 30 and Type 38, were created by Nariakira Arisaka during these conflicts. The type 99 came in four versions: the Type 99 short rifle (a standard infantry rifle), the Type 99 long rifle (limited production), a Takedown Type 2 Paratrooper rifle, and the Type 99 sniper rifle. The standard infantry rifle had a monopod as well as an anti-aircraft rear sight meant to take down low flying lightly armored bombers.

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Arisaka rifle evolution (from top to bottom): 1. Type 30 2. Type 38 3. Type 38 carbine 4. Type 44 carbine 5. Type “I” model 6. Type 99 (earlier model) 7. Type 99 (later model)

The Type 99 rifle was basically an improved version of Type 38, but with the increased firepower of a 7.7mm cartridge (the 38 used a 6.5mm cartridge). The 99 could chamber a 5 round stripper clip. It had a quick-release bolt and a safety measure built in so that the spent cartridges would fly away from the soldier. It also had a chrome lined bore for easier cleaning. Although it had the heavier firepower, it also had a strong kickback due to its lighter stock. The Type 99 came with its own bayonet in the form of a long slender blade, often grooved to reduce weight. The Type 99 was a strong and solid weapon and one of the best bolt action rifles of its time.

The Type 99 was produced by 8 factories over the course of its service. These included Nagoya and Kokura in Japan, the Jinsen Arsenal in Korea, and Hoten (Mukden) in Manchuria. There were also subcontractors throughout mainland Japan producing these rifles. The rifles were produced in series of 100,000 with its numbering being 0 to 99,000 before the count would start over. The Type 99 rifle was only manufactured from 1939 to 1945. As the war progressed and pressure increased for Japan to manufacture more weaponry, the quality of these weapons decreased. At the end of WWII a batch of “last ditch” rifles were produced and they are known for their crude and simple design.

Most of the weaponry collected from Japan after WWII had any significant symbols/insignia removed or defaced by the Japanese before they were handed over. The Type 99 rifle in particular had its Imperial Chrysanthemum blossom ‘mon’ (a Japanese emblem used to identify an individual or family) removed before being turned over. One theory behind this act is that it would have been disrespectful to the Emperor if his ‘mon’ was allowed to remain upon a weapon handed over the enemy. Any rifles with the ‘mon’ still intact indicate that they were taken before the surrender by Chinese, British, or American soldiers.

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Arisaka Type 99 Bolt Action Rifle from Midway Village Museum’s permanent collection 

Above is an image of the Type 99 bolt action infantry rifle in our collection. Its arsenal mark and serial number, 3976, indicate that it was part of the 31st series of rifles manufactured by Toyo Kogyo under contract to Kokura Arsenal. It was most likely manufactured during 1942-1943. The story of Mr. Sarver bringing this rifle back with him during WWII is supported by the Chrysanthemum ‘mon’ still being intact on this rifle. If the rifle had been handed over after the war, the ‘mon’ would no longer be present or fully intact. The writing below the ‘mon’ is ‘kyu-kyu-shiku’ which roughly translates to Type 99, meaning that the rifle is a Type 99. Our rifle has a flip up anti-aircraft rear sight, monopod, and is made from better quality materials than the ‘last ditch’ rifles at the end of the war.

 

The bayonet that came with our rifle has a hook guard and a serial number of 2271908, which suggests it was made in the 1910s and would have been issued originally with an Arisaka Type 38 rifle. Our rifle measures 44in in length from the butt to the barrel and is roughly eight pounds.

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Type 30 bayonet & scabbard from WWI that came with the Arisaka Type 99 rifle

 

Once Everett Charles Sarver returned home, he ran his trucking business until 1969. He had married Ruth Irene Wickens in 1941 and together they had three children: Suzanne Mary, Charles “Chuck” “Charlie” Sarver, Jr., and Linda Kay.  Everett Charles Sarver passed away on October 24, 1991.

-Post written by Tiffany Arnold, Assistant Curator at Midway Village Museum

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Pancakes, Prejudice and Publicity

A picture is worth a thousand words, yet it is not uncommon to find a photograph in our collections for which one thousand words would be sorely lacking. Take this, for example:

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This is Aunt Jemima, portrayed by the actress Edith Wilson, receiving the Key to the City of Rockford, Illinois. The Mayor was scheduled to attend, but on the day of the ceremony it was Chief of Police Tom Beaustead who handed Wilson the key to the city. It might be better to say that this picture raises a thousand questions! What was happening on January 28, 1954 to produce this strange event?

Perhaps it is best to begin by explaining the ritual itself. The gifting of a key to the city is a ritual which stems back to the medieval ages, when walled cities would lock their gates most of the time for security reasons. Only people who were true friends of the city would be honored in this way. In recent years, however, the civic ritual has become more of a publicity stunt and less of a sincere gesture. This only raises more questions: was this a sincere gesture or just a photo opportunity? If it was sincere, what did Edith Wilson do to deserve the honor?

Edith Wilson was flown in by helicopter from Chicago (the helicopter landed on the courthouse lawn, the first time a helicopter had ever landed in downtown Rockford) to help raise support for the first annual Rockford Kiwanis Club Pancake Day on January 30, 1954. Wilson was constantly busy during her four day stay in Rockford. She met with the Kiwanis Club for their final planning meetings and made visits to schools, hospitals and children’s centers. She also provided the evening’s entertainment at the YMCA on Thursday night. For the big day itself, Wilson assisted with preparation and service, but the newspapers focused on her celebrity status and remarked that she was busy most of the day meeting with families and signing autographs. Pancake Day was a huge success right from the start, and Wilson’s efforts guaranteed that the event would be successful. The event raised over $8,000, and the proceeds went towards the renovation of the Lincoln Park Boy’s Club. Nevertheless, Wilson was here as a paid spokesperson of Quaker Oats to promote the Aunt Jemima brand, so it seems that the gifting of the key to the city was part publicity stunt, part sincere honor.

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Lapel pin from the Museum’s collection. It is unknown whether this was something used during Edith Wilson’s visit.

The photograph of Miss Wilson’s visit also sheds light on changes in race relations. The Aunt Jemima character has long been criticized for being an example of the “mammy” stereotype. The “mammy” stereotype depicted cheerful African Americans as servants.

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“Mammy” Syrup Pitcher in the Museum’s collection.

All public appearances over the four days featured “Aunt Jemima”; the newspapers never even mention Wilson by her actual name. While she attended the final planning meeting, there is no evidence to suggest that her appearance was anything more than a photo opportunity. Wilson was an incredibly successful jazz and blues singer who shared the stage with greats such as Louis Armstrong, yet when she served as the night’s entertainment at the YMCA, the newspapers continued to bill her as Aunt Jemima. That said, the Rockford Register-Republic briefly mentioned that “the program includes dancing”, so it may have been that visitors got to hear some world-class music after all.

This photo is a revealing example of shifts taking place in our community in the 1950’s. The key gifting ritual was mostly done for the photo opportunity, yet it still required a measure of community service to deserve the honor. African-American portrayals were still racist, but a portrayal such as Wilson’s served to drum up support for local charities and organizations while also rousing the community towards positive ends. That, at least, is something worth commemorating with a hearty plate of flapjacks accompanied by the jazzy tunes of Edith Wilson herself.

–Post contributed by Ryan Zieglebauer, Midway Village Museum Interpeter and Volunteer

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A 1953 Valentine Party

With Valentine’s Day fast approaching, we offer you this glimpse of Valentine’s Day 1953.

The photos, of Betty Peters’ 4th grade class at Henrietta School in Rockford, is part of Midway Village Museum’s photo collection and captures the students ready for their class Valentine’s Day party. Most students have homemade Valentines and boxes on their desks.

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Henrietta School was built in 1952 at 200 N. Johnston Ave. In more recent years the building was used for Head Start programming. Since 2012, the building, which has been owned by the City of Rockford, has been used for community meetings. In 2015 the City was in negotiations to sell the building to Carl E. Ponds Funeral Home.

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“We Saved Baseball” — Betty Yahr and the Rockford Peaches

A guest post by Intern Alicia Meyer

With baseball season coming to an end, we are reminded of one of Rockford’s greatest legacies: the Rockford Peaches. The Peaches were one of fifteen teams in the All American Girls Professional Baseball League that existed from 1943-1954. The Peaches won three league championships and were portrayed in the 1992 film A League of Their Own. Though the team was based in Rockford, members of the team were selected by talent scouts throughout the United States who would choose the best women baseball players for the league. One of those chosen women was Betty Yahr.

Betty Yahr playing ball before joining the Rockford Peaches in 1946.

Betty Yahr playing ball before joining the Rockford Peaches in 1946.

Betty Ruth Yahr was born on April 22, 1923 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. She began her athletic career in high school where she was a member of the Girls Athletic Club. She was involved in multiple sports such as hockey, baseball, volleyball, and basketball. When she graduated in 1941, Ann Arbor High School recognized her as the “Most Athletic” in the yearbook and they were right to do so. Yahr continued playing sports after graduating, focusing primarily on her favorite one: baseball. She played on the semi-professional Michigan team “Dad’s Root Beer” winning the Michigan state championship. While playing a game in Ft. Wayne, MI, Yahr caught the eye of a talent scout for the newly formed All-American Girls Professional Baseball League. She was then invited to play on the Rockford Peaches.

Betty Yahr while with the Rockford Peaches. She used this photo for her official baseball card.

Betty Yahr while with the Rockford Peaches. She used this photo for her official baseball card.

Yahr joined the Rockford Peaches in 1946 as a right fielder. She contributed in 22 games, had 76 at bats, 11 runs, and a batting average of .171. The Peaches achieved third place and were 60-52 for the ‘46 season. The league champions were the Racine Bells that year, though the Peaches had dominated the season in ‘45. Yahr became homesick at the end of the season and decided to head back to Ann Arbor. She later attempted to rejoin the AAGPBL but was denied due to the hundreds of applicants who were ahead of her. She continued playing recreational baseball in Michigan and had a 41 year-long career at Edwards Brothers Inc., a printing company, before retiring in 1988.

The Voss Girls' Baseball Team in Flint, MI.

The Voss Girls’ Baseball Team in Flint, MI. Yahr is in the back row, the last woman on the right.

Sadly, Betty Yahr passed away on December 30, 2010 after battling Alzheimer’s disease.  She left behind quite the legacy. She is featured in the National Baseball Hall of Fame located in Cooperstown, New York as a part of their AAGPBL exhibit. Her glove, contract, uniform hat, and other memorabilia were donated to the Hall of Fame by her nephew Ronald Yahr. Ronald kindly donated some of Betty’s possessions to Midway Village Museum in July of 2014. In the collection, we received a replica Rockford Peaches baseball hat, original photos of Betty (including the one used for her AAGPBL baseball card), copies of her contract and correspondence with the league, and an actual baseball used in her time with the Peaches.

On November 8, 2015 learn more about the Rockford Peaches at a Rockford Premiere Showing of the movie A Team of their Own, a documentary produced by Grand Valley State University students. Showings of the film will be at Midway Village Museum, 6799 Guilfird Rd., Rockford at 3:30 p.m. and 6 p.m. Tickets are $10 general public, $8 for Museum members. For more information or to purchase tickets online visit www.midwayvillage.com.

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The Guilford Hope Grange

As Rockford’s history museum, it is important to Midway Village Museum that we document the lives and experiences of the many Rockford residents who made their living by farming. Farming was long a critical part of Rockford’s economic health. Consequently, the museum has collected cultivators, corn planters, and scythes. We continue to seek photos and documents related to local farms and in the past several years two barns have been added to the Village.

This barn, built in 1905, was once located on Bell School Road. Now it resides at Midway Village.

This barn, built in 1905, was once located on Bell School Road. Now it resides at Midway Village.

Among the recent exciting additions to the Museum’s archives is a series of minute books from the Guilford Hope Grange. The Grange movement got its start in 1867 in the aftermath of the Civil War. Founded under the name the Patrons of Husbandry, the National Grange sought to unite farmers around the country politically and socially, much like other trade unions.

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Workers on the Orville P. Thomas farm in Owen Township, 1896.

Rockford’s Guilford Hope Grange was founded in July 1871 at Center Schoolhouse (at Mulford and Guilford Rds.) with approximately 10 members in attendance. However, the group did not appeal to the State Grange for a charter until 1873. Regular weekly meetings began in November 1873.

The earliest record book in the collection is from 1873-1874. The first meetings focused largely on building membership and socializing. Both men and women were admitted to the association. Later meetings included the planning of picnics and parties, as well as educational programs and presentations.

In January 1874 these early meetings took on a political bent. In reaction to decisions made at the Illinois Plow Manufacturers convention the previous October the Grange resolved the following:

“Whereas, Certain plow manufacturers did resolve and contract among themselves . . . that they would not sell to the patrons of husbandry [Grange] for any less than their usual retail price; and Whereas, it is evidently as much for their interest to sell to us, at their wholesale price for cash, as to sell to their agent for notes or credit. Therefore: Resolved, That we consider such an act as the declaration of open warfare against our noble order. . .”

The membership vowed to boycott any manufacturers or dealers unwilling to offer the Grange a discounted rate.  They published their resolution in the Rockford Weekly Gazette on February 5, 1874. Unfortunately the minutes as well as the local newspapers fail to mention whether their boycott resulted in any political gains.

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Rockford’s John P. Manny Mower Company.

Over the years the Guilford Hope Grange regularly participated in the county and State Grange and read news from the National Grange with interest. In the 1930s political interests took a more prominent role in meetings than in many of the earlier years. Committees were appointed to address issues of legislation and taxation. Among their chief concerns was adequate rural mail service.

Educational programs were a constant part of the meetings. Topics ranged from those of an agricultural nature, to topics of a more general interest. In the 1870s they discussed the cost of raising a bushel of corn, the effectiveness of different fertilizers, and how to cure cholera in chickens. In the early 20th century topics included the proper cultivation of blueberries and the history of the American Red Cross.

Constant through the years was the social purpose of the group. The Grange held parties, picnics and dances. Meetings included news of members and sing alongs. In the 1930s the Guilford Hope Grange formed a baseball team and played teams from the other area granges.

The collection of Guilford Hope Grange record books tracks the association’s activities over a span of nearly 120 years. Through them we can begin to understand the concerns and interests important to Rockford’s farm community over the years.

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Local farmers make a delivery at a creamery in Argyle, IL. 1890s.

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World War I Trench Warfare

With the World War One centennial now entering into its second year, now seems like a good time to highlight one of Midway Village Museum’s most immersive pieces for engaging the public in the history of the war: the on-site trench.

In 2013, Midway Museum began its spring WWI Days living history event. Early on in the planning for this event, the re-enactors who partner with the Museum asked permission to construct a permanent trench addition on-site to use during the event. After investing over 2,000 hours of labor, the trench now includes over 200 feet of reproduction trench line made up of both a larger front-line trench network as well as a smaller communications trench. It serves double duty for the Museum’s WWI and WWII Days events (the latter held each September) and provides a setting for re-enactors to display objects and conduct field battles. Some re-enactors even go full immersion and live in the trenches during the events!

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The trenches are dug 6 feet deep and then built up with clay, wooden supports and sandbags. Duck boards are utilized to provide a solid footing to walk upon, and these must be repaired or replaced every year due to submersion in water and ice. Three bunkers include amenities such as bunk beds and phone wire installations. There are several volunteer events each year to ensure that the bunkers remain sound and secure against the elements and to maintain the security and integrity of the trench walls.

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By looking at aerial photographs from WWI from the collection of the Imperial War Museum, you can truly appreciate the details which might be overlooked while walking through the reproduction trenches. For example, the trenches are constructed in a zig-zag pattern. This was done to make the trenches more defensible. If artillery fire should score a direct hit on the trench, the blast radius could only extend as far as the nearest zig-zag, thereby mitigating the destruction. As well, if the trench were overrun by the enemy, the curves in the trenches would offer protection for the occupants and make it easier to reclaim the lost ground.

AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY ON THE WESTERN FRONT, 1916

AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY ON THE WESTERN FRONT, 1916© IWM (HU 91107)

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The landscape, particularly during the April event, serves very well as a visual likeness of the Western Front. Much of the vegetation in the field is stripped away, while spring has not yet brought an abundance of green to the site. The Western Front of WWI came to be described as a lunar landscape, for the impact of warfare could very quickly take a vibrant, living landscape and transform it into a muddy, lifeless, crater-filled terrain. Below are before-and-after photos from the Battle of Passchendaele, fought between 31 July and 6 November 1917 near the Belgian city of Ypres.

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http://THE FIRST WORLD WAR 1914  1918: TRENCH WARFARE ON THE WESTERN FRONT© IWM (Q 42918A)

Conditions in the reproduction trenches also mimic those from the Western Front. April rains, supplemented by the melting of winter snowfall, frequently causes the trenches at Midway to flood. To counter this and make the trenches safe and accessible to re-enactors and visitors, a drainage sump was installed this year to supplement electric pumps in removing the accumulated water. WWI armies also used drainage ditches, pumps and good old-fashioned buckets to keep water out of their trenches, but there were rare instances where the elements proved too aggressive in the short-term for soldiers to keep their trenches dry and clear.
THE BRITISH EXPEDITIONARY FORCE ON THE WESTERN FRONT, 1914-1915

http://THE BRITISH EXPEDITIONARY FORCE ON THE WESTERN FRONT, 1914-1915© IWM (Q 51569)

The reproduction trenches at Midway Village continue to be a work-in-progress. A new set of opposing trench works have begun on the east side of the field, and a new Christmas in the Trenches event will be held this December to commemorate the Christmas Truce of 1914 and give a portrayal of how soldiers celebrated the holiday while in the trenches, so be sure to keep an eye out for opportunities to take advantage of this expansive and immersive resource!

Upcoming events include:

September 26-27, 2015, World War II Days

December 5, 2015, Christmas in the Trenches: A Re-enactment of the 1914 World War I Christmas Truce.

For more information go to www.midwayvillage.com

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Do You Speak Esperanto?

Included in Midway Village Museum’s collection of postcards is one showing members of Rockford’s “Esperanto Klubo,” or Esperanto Club.  It shows eight young men, sharply dressed, posing proudly for the camera in 1916.  In a community with numerous clubs, this is one of the most obscure ones.

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Esperanto Klubo “Progreso”, Rockford, Illinois, 1916

In 1887 Polish physician Dr. L. L. Zamenhoff devised and introduced Esperanto as a new international language. He created it to serve as a second language that could be used as a linguistic bridge between people speaking different languages.  The idea was not to replace any other language but to provide a common language that is simple to learn and allows people to communicate without having to give up their own native language or adopt someone else’s.  While it is not widely used, there are still lots of people who speak Esperanto and over 100 periodicals published in it.  It is still used as a bridge language by the UN and others to translate documents from say Danish to several other languages.  One person can translate from, let’s say, Danish to Esperanto, then others can translate from Esperanto to any other language.

How did this come to be the focus of a club in Rockford over 100 years ago?  In an era of heavy immigration to the US, it is perhaps understandable that some Americans – including some Rockfordians – felt the need to deal with intense cultural changes by finding a better way for immigrants and long-term residents to communicate.  Esperanto provided an avenue to do that.

In April 1907, Rockford’s Daily Register Gazette reported that several local groups, including the Rockford Temperance guards, the YMCA and a group of south Rockford boys had come together to learn Esperanto.  They announced a “grand rally” to be held at the YMCA building for the purpose of showing off postcards from Esperantoists in over 40 different countries.  Any boys interested in seeing these were invited to come!  The following evening, Floyd B. Hardin, president of the University of Chicago Esperanto Society, lectured on the new language.  The article went on to state that free public courses in Esperanto were soon to be opened in Rockford under the direction of Mr. Hardin with assistance from Mr. E. C. Reed of the Harvard University Esperanto Association.

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The Rockford YMCA at State & Madison Streets.

One of the advantages of Esperanto is that it can be learned very easily.  It has only 16 simple rules to follow (a tad fewer than the English language) and, the local paper reported that the average American student “already knows three-fourths of the words in the vocabulary.”  Therefore, it would only take a couple of months to master the new language.

Subsequent articles in Rockford papers suggest that Hardin’s lecture was a success.  The May 21, 1907 edition of the Rockford Morning Star reported 15 new students for the second class in Esperanto, bringing the total to 100.  Classes were held at the YMCA, then located at State & Madison Streets.

Interest in this new artificial language was high enough in Rockford that the Rockford Republic published three lessons in Esperanto a couple of months later.  Lesson 1 – the Esperanto alphabet and how to pronounce it – appeared on July 18, 1907.  Lesson 2 – article, noun, adjective, present tense – appeared on July 22nd.  Lesson 3 – plural, past tense, future tense, accusative case, and adverbs – was published on July 24th.  Each of these lessons could be printed on a single 8½” x 11” page.  Imagine doing that with an English grammar lesson covering the same topics!

Shortly after these lessons appeared in the paper, Esperantists from all over Illinois met in Rockford to form a statewide Esperanto Association of all the clubs studying the language.  The July 28, 1907 edition of the Rockford Morning Star reported that delegates from 15 societies attended, meeting in the office of E. C. Reed.  Reed was duly elected secretary. The aim of the new group was to “broaden the propaganda and arouse more interest in the study of the language”.

Evidently, Mr. Reed made an impression on his fellow Esperantists as he was selected to be secretary for the Esperanto Association of North America in 1911.  The August 28th edition of the Rockford Daily Register Gazette reported that he was being sent abroad annually by the Association, and that he was the sole American elected a member of the International Esperanto Commission.

Just as evidently, interest in Esperanto flagged in Rockford after its big splash in 1907.  An article in the October 23, 1911 edition of the Rockford Republic included an article that began with the statement that “Esperanto, the international language which was so much talked about a few years ago is not dead in Rockford.”  A new local organization was being formed to study the language.  The new club was to be known as “Progreso,” which gets us back to the postcard that started this discussion.  That name clearly appears at the bottom of the postcard.  Local officers were Herman Hallstrom as president, and Karl Froding, secretary and treasurer.

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Men’s Socialist Party of Rockford, 1910. Future Rockford Mayor Herman Hallstrom is in the middle row at far left.

Hallstrom’s interest in Esperanto may have come from the fact that he was born in Sweden in 1888 and came to America (and Rockford) 20 years later.  By 1910, he was active in the Socialist Party in Rockford.  He served overseas during World War I but returned to his interest in politics after returning home.  He served five two-year terms as Rockford’s mayor, his first three terms (starting with the 1921 election) as a member of the Rockford Labor League and his final two terms (following the 1929 election) as an independent.  Outside of politics, his primary interest was with Swedish American Hospital, serving as a board member and as president of the hospital.  He died in 1961 at the age of 72.

Not as much is known of Mr. Froding.  However, according to a brief obituary printed in the Rockford Register-Republic in May 1949, he came to Rockford in 1903 and worked at the Colonial Desk Company.  He moved to Auburn, Wisconsin in 1948 where he died a year later.  We do know, from the September 23, 1913 edition of the Rockford Republic that the Esperanto Club had resumed its activities at that point, meeting weekly in Froding’s offices in the Columbia Building on 7th Street.  There were also classes for beginners once a week.

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Froding, so central to the local Esperanto movement, worked at Colonial Desk Company upon his arrival in Rockford.

Interest in Esperanto continued locally, or at least at the Rockford Republic, which included an article in their March 30, 1912 edition stating that the Esperanto Association of North America would send pamphlets to any of the paper’s readers who sent their name and address to the Association’s office in Washington.  A 1924 article announced plans to form a club among east side workers for the purpose of studying Esperanto.  The paper quotes Mr. Froding as saying that Esperanto was “believed by many to be the most logical international language….”  He was cited as being an official of the Swedish Socialist Club, headquartered on Seventh Street.

Where does Esperanto stand now?  According to the Journal of the American Medical Information Association, interest in the language increased after World War II, especially as Eastern Europe and China saw the need for a common language but were reluctant to embrace English.  Interest in Esperanto peaked in the 1970s, “receiving serious attention from linguistic scholars, with numerous publications appearing in academic journals.  Perhaps two to five million people studied or spoke Esperanto.  Conventions were held; periodicals and more books appeared.”  However, after the ‘70s, interest in it dropped off as English became the closest thing to an international language. Esperanto was simply not practical.  It wasn’t anyone’s native language, finding people who could speak it (outside of Esperanto conventions) was nearly impossible, and it did not have a means of adapting to contemporary terminology.

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